# StatefulSets Kubernetes

StatefulSet is the workload API object used to manage stateful applications.

## Using StatefulSets

StatefulSets are valuable for applications that require one or more of the following.

• Stable, unique network identifiers.
• Stable, persistent storage.
• Ordered, graceful deployment and scaling.

In the above, stable is synonymous with persistence across Pod (re)scheduling. If an application doesn't require any stable identifiers or ordered deployment, deletion, or scaling, you should deploy your application using a workload object that provides a set of stateless replicas. Deployment or ReplicaSet may be better suited to your stateless needs.

## Limitations

• The storage for a given Pod must either be provisioned by a PersistentVolume Provisioner based on the requested storage class, or pre-provisioned by an admin.
• Deleting and/or scaling a StatefulSet down will not delete the volumes associated with the StatefulSet. This is done to ensure data safety, which is generally more valuable than an automatic purge of all related StatefulSet resources.
• StatefulSets currently require a Headless Service to be responsible for the network identity of the Pods. You are responsible for creating this Service.
• StatefulSets do not provide any guarantees on the termination of pods when a StatefulSet is deleted. To achieve ordered and graceful termination of the pods in the StatefulSet, it is possible to scale the StatefulSet down to 0 prior to deletion.
• When using Rolling Updates with the default Pod Management Policy (OrderedReady), it's possible to get into a broken state that requires manual intervention to repair.

## Components

The example below demonstrates the components of a StatefulSet.

• A Headless Service, named nginx, is used to control the network domain.
• The StatefulSet, named web, has a Spec that indicates that 3 replicas of the nginx container will be launched in unique Pods.
• The volumeClaimTemplates will provide stable storage using PersistentVolumes provisioned by a PersistentVolume Provisioner.
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
ports:
- port: 80
name: web
clusterIP: None
selector:
app: nginx
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
name: web
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: nginx # has to match .spec.template.metadata.labels
serviceName: "nginx"
replicas: 3 # by default is 1
template:
labels:
app: nginx # has to match .spec.selector.matchLabels
spec:
terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 10
containers:
- name: nginx
image: k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8
ports:
- containerPort: 80
name: web
volumeMounts:
- name: www
mountPath: /usr/share/nginx/html
volumeClaimTemplates:
name: www
spec:
storageClassName: "my-storage-class"
resources:
requests:
storage: 1Gi


## Pod Selector

You must set the .spec.selector field of a StatefulSet to match the labels of its .spec.template.metadata.labels. Prior to Kubernetes 1.8, the .spec.selector field was defaulted when omitted. In 1.8 and later versions, failing to specify a matching Pod Selector will result in a validation error during StatefulSet creation.

## Pod Identity

StatefulSet Pods have a unique identity that is comprised of an ordinal, a stable network identity, and stable storage. The identity sticks to the Pod, regardless of which node it's (re)scheduled on.

### Ordinal Index

For a StatefulSet with N replicas, each Pod in the StatefulSet will be assigned an integer ordinal, from 0 up through N-1, that is unique over the Set.

### Stable Network ID

Each Pod in a StatefulSet derives its hostname from the name of the StatefulSet and the ordinal of the Pod. The pattern for the constructed hostname is $(statefulset name)-$(ordinal). The example above will create three Pods named web-0,web-1,web-2. A StatefulSet can use a Headless Service to control the domain of its Pods. The domain managed by this Service takes the form: $(service name).$(namespace).svc.cluster.local, where "cluster.local" is the cluster domain. As each Pod is created, it gets a matching DNS subdomain, taking the form: $(podname).$(governing service domain), where the governing service is defined by the serviceName field on the StatefulSet.

As mentioned in the limitations section, you are responsible for creating the Headless Service responsible for the network identity of the pods.

Here are some examples of choices for Cluster Domain, Service name, StatefulSet name, and how that affects the DNS names for the StatefulSet's Pods.

Cluster Domain Service (ns/name) StatefulSet (ns/name) StatefulSet Domain Pod DNS Pod Hostname
cluster.local default/nginx default/web nginx.default.svc.cluster.local web-{0..N-1}.nginx.default.svc.cluster.local web-{0..N-1}
cluster.local foo/nginx foo/web nginx.foo.svc.cluster.local web-{0..N-1}.nginx.foo.svc.cluster.local web-{0..N-1}
kube.local foo/nginx foo/web nginx.foo.svc.kube.local web-{0..N-1}.nginx.foo.svc.kube.local web-{0..N-1}

Cluster Domain will be set to cluster.local unless otherwise configured.

### Stable Storage

Kubernetes creates one PersistentVolume for each VolumeClaimTemplate. In the nginx example above, each Pod will receive a single PersistentVolume with a StorageClass of my-storage-class and 1 Gib of provisioned storage. If no StorageClass is specified, then the default StorageClass will be used. When a Pod is (re)scheduled onto a node, its volumeMounts mount the PersistentVolumes associated with its PersistentVolume Claims. Note that, the PersistentVolumes associated with the Pods' PersistentVolume Claims are not deleted when the Pods, or StatefulSet are deleted. This must be done manually.

### Pod Name Label

When the StatefulSet creates a Pod, it adds a label, statefulset.kubernetes.io/pod-name, that is set to the name of the Pod. This label allows you to attach a Service to a specific Pod in the StatefulSet.

## Deployment and Scaling Guarantees

• For a StatefulSet with N replicas, when Pods are being deployed, they are created sequentially, in order from {0..N-1}.
• When Pods are being deleted, they are terminated in reverse order, from {N-1..0}.
• Before a scaling operation is applied to a Pod, all of its predecessors must be Running and Ready.
• Before a Pod is terminated, all of its successors must be completely shutdown.

The StatefulSet should not specify a pod.Spec.TerminationGracePeriodSeconds of 0. This practice is unsafe and strongly discouraged. For further explanation, please refer to force deleting StatefulSet Pods.

When the nginx example above is created, three Pods will be deployed in the order web-0, web-1, web-2. web-1 will not be deployed before web-0 is Running and Ready, and web-2 will not be deployed until web-1 is Running and Ready. If web-0 should fail, after web-1 is Running and Ready, but before web-2 is launched, web-2 will not be launched until web-0 is successfully relaunched and becomes Running and Ready.

If a user were to scale the deployed example by patching the StatefulSet such that replicas=1, web-2 would be terminated first. web-1 would not be terminated until web-2 is fully shutdown and deleted. If web-0 were to fail after web-2 has been terminated and is completely shutdown, but prior to web-1's termination, web-1 would not be terminated until web-0 is Running and Ready.

### Pod Management Policies

In Kubernetes 1.7 and later, StatefulSet allows you to relax its ordering guarantees while preserving its uniqueness and identity guarantees via its .spec.podManagementPolicy field.

OrderedReady pod management is the default for StatefulSets. It implements the behavior described above.

#### Parallel Pod Management

Parallel pod management tells the StatefulSet controller to launch or terminate all Pods in parallel, and to not wait for Pods to become Running and Ready or completely terminated prior to launching or terminating another Pod. This option only affects the behavior for scaling operations. Updates are not affected.

## Update Strategies

In Kubernetes 1.7 and later, StatefulSet's .spec.updateStrategy field allows you to configure and disable automated rolling updates for containers, labels, resource request/limits, and annotations for the Pods in a StatefulSet.

### On Delete

The OnDelete update strategy implements the legacy (1.6 and prior) behavior. When a StatefulSet's .spec.updateStrategy.type is set to OnDelete, the StatefulSet controller will not automatically update the Pods in a StatefulSet. Users must manually delete Pods to cause the controller to create new Pods that reflect modifications made to a StatefulSet's .spec.template.

The RollingUpdate update strategy implements automated, rolling update for the Pods in a StatefulSet. It is the default strategy when .spec.updateStrategy is left unspecified. When a StatefulSet's .spec.updateStrategy.type is set to RollingUpdate, the StatefulSet controller will delete and recreate each Pod in the StatefulSet. It will proceed in the same order as Pod termination (from the largest ordinal to the smallest), updating each Pod one at a time. It will wait until an updated Pod is Running and Ready prior to updating its predecessor.

#### Partitions

The RollingUpdate update strategy can be partitioned, by specifying a .spec.updateStrategy.rollingUpdate.partition. If a partition is specified, all Pods with an ordinal that is greater than or equal to the partition will be updated when the StatefulSet's .spec.template is updated. All Pods with an ordinal that is less than the partition will not be updated, and, even if they are deleted, they will be recreated at the previous version. If a StatefulSet's .spec.updateStrategy.rollingUpdate.partition is greater than its .spec.replicas, updates to its .spec.template will not be propagated to its Pods. In most cases you will not need to use a partition, but they are useful if you want to stage an update, roll out a canary, or perform a phased roll out.

#### Forced Rollback

When using Rolling Updates with the default Pod Management Policy (OrderedReady), it's possible to get into a broken state that requires manual intervention to repair.

If you update the Pod template to a configuration that never becomes Running and Ready (for example, due to a bad binary or application-level configuration error), StatefulSet will stop the rollout and wait.

In this state, it's not enough to revert the Pod template to a good configuration. Due to a known issue, StatefulSet will continue to wait for the broken Pod to become Ready (which never happens) before it will attempt to revert it back to the working configuration.

After reverting the template, you must also delete any Pods that StatefulSet had already attempted to run with the bad configuration. StatefulSet will then begin to recreate the Pods using the reverted template.

## Exercice : StatefulSet Basics

This tutorial provides an introduction to managing applications with StatefulSets. It demonstrates how to create, delete, scale, and update the Pods of StatefulSets.

Before you begin this tutorial, you should familiarize yourself with the following Kubernetes concepts.

• Pods
• Cluster DNS
• PersistentVolumes
• PersistentVolume Provisioning
• StatefulSets
• kubectl CLI

This tutorial assumes that your cluster is configured to dynamically provision PersistentVolumes. If your cluster is not configured to do so, you will have to manually provision two 1 GiB volumes prior to starting this tutorial.

StatefulSets are intended to be used with stateful applications and distributed systems. However, the administration of stateful applications and distributed systems on Kubernetes is a broad, complex topic. In order to demonstrate the basic features of a StatefulSet, and not to conflate the former topic with the latter, you will deploy a simple web application using a StatefulSet.

After this tutorial, you will be familiar with the following.

• How to create a StatefulSet
• How a StatefulSet manages its Pods
• How to delete a StatefulSet
• How to scale a StatefulSet
• How to update a StatefulSet's Pods

## Creating a StatefulSet

Begin by creating a StatefulSet using the example below. It is similar to the example presented in the StatefulSets concept. It creates a Headless Service, nginx, to publish the IP addresses of Pods in the StatefulSet, web.

application/web/web.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
ports:
- port: 80
name: web
clusterIP: None
selector:
app: nginx
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
name: web
spec:
serviceName: "nginx"
replicas: 2
selector:
matchLabels:
app: nginx
template:
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- name: nginx
image: k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8
ports:
- containerPort: 80
name: web
volumeMounts:
- name: www
mountPath: /usr/share/nginx/html
volumeClaimTemplates:
name: www
spec:
resources:
requests:
storage: 1Gi


Download the example above, and save it to a file named web.yaml

You will need to use two terminal windows. In the first terminal, use kubectl get to watch the creation of the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx


In the second terminal, use kubectl apply to create the Headless Service and StatefulSet defined in web.yaml.

kubectl apply -f web.yaml
service/nginx created
statefulset.apps/web created


The command above creates two Pods, each running an NGINX webserver. Get the nginx Service and the web StatefulSet to verify that they were created successfully.

kubectl get service nginx
NAME      TYPE         CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
nginx     ClusterIP    None         <none>        80/TCP    12s

kubectl get statefulset web
NAME      DESIRED   CURRENT   AGE
web       2         1         20s


### Ordered Pod Creation

For a StatefulSet with N replicas, when Pods are being deployed, they are created sequentially, in order from {0..N-1}. Examine the output of the kubectl get command in the first terminal. Eventually, the output will look like the example below.

kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx
web-0     0/1       Pending   0          0s
web-0     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-0     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-0     1/1       Running   0         19s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-1     1/1       Running   0         18s


Notice that the web-1 Pod is not launched until the web-0 Pod is Running and Ready.

## Pods in a StatefulSet

Pods in a StatefulSet have a unique ordinal index and a stable network identity.

### Examining the Pod's Ordinal Index

Get the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl get pods -l app=nginx
web-0     1/1       Running   0          1m
web-1     1/1       Running   0          1m


As mentioned in the StatefulSets concept, the Pods in a StatefulSet have a sticky, unique identity. This identity is based on a unique ordinal index that is assigned to each Pod by the StatefulSet controller. The Pods' names take the form <statefulset name>-<ordinal index>. Since the web StatefulSet has two replicas, it creates two Pods, web-0 and web-1.

### Using Stable Network Identities

Each Pod has a stable hostname based on its ordinal index. Use kubectl exec to execute the hostname command in each Pod.

for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec web-$i -- sh -c 'hostname'; done web-0 web-1  Use kubectl run to execute a container that provides the nslookup command from the dnsutils package. Using nslookup on the Pods' hostnames, you can examine their in-cluster DNS addresses. kubectl run -i --tty --image busybox:1.28 dns-test --restart=Never --rm nslookup web-0.nginx Server: 10.0.0.10 Address 1: 10.0.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local Name: web-0.nginx Address 1: 10.244.1.6 nslookup web-1.nginx Server: 10.0.0.10 Address 1: 10.0.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local Name: web-1.nginx Address 1: 10.244.2.6  The CNAME of the headless service points to SRV records (one for each Pod that is Running and Ready). The SRV records point to A record entries that contain the Pods' IP addresses. In one terminal, watch the StatefulSet's Pods. kubectl get pod -w -l app=nginx  In a second terminal, use kubectl delete to delete all the Pods in the StatefulSet. kubectl delete pod -l app=nginx pod "web-0" deleted pod "web-1" deleted  Wait for the StatefulSet to restart them, and for both Pods to transition to Running and Ready. kubectl get pod -w -l app=nginx NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 2s web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-1 1/1 Running 0 34s  Use kubectl exec and kubectl run to view the Pods hostnames and in-cluster DNS entries. for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec web-$i -- sh -c 'hostname'; done
web-0
web-1

kubectl run -i --tty --image busybox:1.28 dns-test --restart=Never --rm /bin/sh
nslookup web-0.nginx
Server:    10.0.0.10

Name:      web-0.nginx

nslookup web-1.nginx
Server:    10.0.0.10

Name:      web-1.nginx


The Pods' ordinals, hostnames, SRV records, and A record names have not changed, but the IP addresses associated with the Pods may have changed. In the cluster used for this tutorial, they have. This is why it is important not to configure other applications to connect to Pods in a StatefulSet by IP address.

If you need to find and connect to the active members of a StatefulSet, you should query the CNAME of the Headless Service (nginx.default.svc.cluster.local). The SRV records associated with the CNAME will contain only the Pods in the StatefulSet that are Running and Ready.

If your application already implements connection logic that tests for liveness and readiness, you can use the SRV records of the Pods ( web-0.nginx.default.svc.cluster.local, web-1.nginx.default.svc.cluster.local), as they are stable, and your application will be able to discover the Pods' addresses when they transition to Running and Ready.

### Writing to Stable Storage

Get the PersistentVolumeClaims for web-0 and web-1.

kubectl get pvc -l app=nginx
NAME        STATUS    VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESSMODES   AGE
www-web-0   Bound     pvc-15c268c7-b507-11e6-932f-42010a800002   1Gi        RWO           48s
www-web-1   Bound     pvc-15c79307-b507-11e6-932f-42010a800002   1Gi        RWO           48s


The StatefulSet controller created two PersistentVolumeClaims that are bound to two PersistentVolumes. As the cluster used in this tutorial is configured to dynamically provision PersistentVolumes, the PersistentVolumes were created and bound automatically.

The NGINX webservers, by default, will serve an index file at /usr/share/nginx/html/index.html. The volumeMounts field in the StatefulSets spec ensures that the /usr/share/nginx/html directory is backed by a PersistentVolume.

Write the Pods' hostnames to their index.html files and verify that the NGINX webservers serve the hostnames.

for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec web-$i -- sh -c 'echo$(hostname) > /usr/share/nginx/html/index.html'; done

for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec -it web-$i -- curl localhost; done web-0 web-1  Note : If you instead see 403 Forbidden responses for the above curl command, you will need to fix the permissions of the directory mounted by the volumeMounts (due to a bug when using hostPath volumes) with: for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec web-$i -- chmod 755 /usr/share/nginx/html; done


before retrying the curl command above.

In one terminal, watch the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl get pod -w -l app=nginx


In a second terminal, delete all of the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl delete pod -l app=nginx
pod "web-0" deleted
pod "web-1" deleted


Examine the output of the kubectl get command in the first terminal, and wait for all of the Pods to transition to Running and Ready.

kubectl get pod -w -l app=nginx
web-0     0/1       ContainerCreating   0          0s
web-0     1/1       Running   0          2s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-1     1/1       Running   0         34s


Verify the web servers continue to serve their hostnames.

for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec -it web-$i -- curl localhost; done web-0 web-1  Even though web-0 and web-1 were rescheduled, they continue to serve their hostnames because the PersistentVolumes associated with their PersistentVolumeClaims are remounted to their volumeMounts. No matter what node web-0and web-1 are scheduled on, their PersistentVolumes will be mounted to the appropriate mount points. ## Scaling a StatefulSet Scaling a StatefulSet refers to increasing or decreasing the number of replicas. This is accomplished by updating the replicas field. You can use either kubectl scale or kubectl patch to scale a StatefulSet. ### Scaling Up In one terminal window, watch the Pods in the StatefulSet. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx  In another terminal window, use kubectl scale to scale the number of replicas to 5. kubectl scale sts web --replicas=5 statefulset.apps/web scaled  Examine the output of the kubectl get command in the first terminal, and wait for the three additional Pods to transition to Running and Ready. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 2h web-1 1/1 Running 0 2h NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-2 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-2 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-2 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-2 1/1 Running 0 19s web-3 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-3 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-3 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-3 1/1 Running 0 18s web-4 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-4 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-4 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-4 1/1 Running 0 19s  The StatefulSet controller scaled the number of replicas. As with StatefulSet creation, the StatefulSet controller created each Pod sequentially with respect to its ordinal index, and it waited for each Pod's predecessor to be Running and Ready before launching the subsequent Pod. ### Scaling Down In one terminal, watch the StatefulSet's Pods. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx  In another terminal, use kubectl patch to scale the StatefulSet back down to three replicas. kubectl patch sts web -p '{"spec":{"replicas":3}}' statefulset.apps/web patched  Wait for web-4 and web-3 to transition to Terminating. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 3h web-1 1/1 Running 0 3h web-2 1/1 Running 0 55s web-3 1/1 Running 0 36s web-4 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 18s NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-4 1/1 Running 0 19s web-4 1/1 Terminating 0 24s web-4 1/1 Terminating 0 24s web-3 1/1 Terminating 0 42s web-3 1/1 Terminating 0 42s  ### Ordered Pod Termination The controller deleted one Pod at a time, in reverse order with respect to its ordinal index, and it waited for each to be completely shutdown before deleting the next. Get the StatefulSet's PersistentVolumeClaims. kubectl get pvc -l app=nginx NAME STATUS VOLUME CAPACITY ACCESSMODES AGE www-web-0 Bound pvc-15c268c7-b507-11e6-932f-42010a800002 1Gi RWO 13h www-web-1 Bound pvc-15c79307-b507-11e6-932f-42010a800002 1Gi RWO 13h www-web-2 Bound pvc-e1125b27-b508-11e6-932f-42010a800002 1Gi RWO 13h www-web-3 Bound pvc-e1176df6-b508-11e6-932f-42010a800002 1Gi RWO 13h www-web-4 Bound pvc-e11bb5f8-b508-11e6-932f-42010a800002 1Gi RWO 13h  There are still five PersistentVolumeClaims and five PersistentVolumes. When exploring a Pod's stable storage, we saw that the PersistentVolumes mounted to the Pods of a StatefulSet are not deleted when the StatefulSet's Pods are deleted. This is still true when Pod deletion is caused by scaling the StatefulSet down. ## Updating StatefulSets In Kubernetes 1.7 and later, the StatefulSet controller supports automated updates. The strategy used is determined by the spec.updateStrategy field of the StatefulSet API Object. This feature can be used to upgrade the container images, resource requests and/or limits, labels, and annotations of the Pods in a StatefulSet. There are two valid update strategies, RollingUpdate and OnDelete. RollingUpdate update strategy is the default for StatefulSets. ### Rolling Update The RollingUpdate update strategy will update all Pods in a StatefulSet, in reverse ordinal order, while respecting the StatefulSet guarantees. Patch the web StatefulSet to apply the RollingUpdate update strategy. kubectl patch statefulset web -p '{"spec":{"updateStrategy":{"type":"RollingUpdate"}}}' statefulset.apps/web patched  In one terminal window, patch the web StatefulSet to change the container image again. kubectl patch statefulset web --type='json' -p='[{"op": "replace", "path": "/spec/template/spec/containers/0/image", "value":"gcr.io/google_containers/nginx-slim:0.8"}]' statefulset.apps/web patched  In another terminal, watch the Pods in the StatefulSet. kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 7m web-1 1/1 Running 0 7m web-2 1/1 Running 0 8m web-2 1/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 1/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-2 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-2 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-2 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-2 1/1 Running 0 19s web-1 1/1 Terminating 0 8m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 8m web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-1 1/1 Running 0 6s web-0 1/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 1/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 7m web-0 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-0 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-0 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-0 1/1 Running 0 10s  The Pods in the StatefulSet are updated in reverse ordinal order. The StatefulSet controller terminates each Pod, and waits for it to transition to Running and Ready prior to updating the next Pod. Note that, even though the StatefulSet controller will not proceed to update the next Pod until its ordinal successor is Running and Ready, it will restore any Pod that fails during the update to its current version. Pods that have already received the update will be restored to the updated version, and Pods that have not yet received the update will be restored to the previous version. In this way, the controller attempts to continue to keep the application healthy and the update consistent in the presence of intermittent failures. Get the Pods to view their container images. for p in 0 1 2; do kubectl get po web-$p --template '{{range $i,$c := .spec.containers}}{{$c.image}}{{end}}'; echo; done k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8 k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8 k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8  All the Pods in the StatefulSet are now running the previous container image. Tip You can also use kubectl rollout status sts/<name> to view the status of a rolling update. #### Staging an Update You can stage an update to a StatefulSet by using the partition parameter of the RollingUpdate update strategy. A staged update will keep all of the Pods in the StatefulSet at the current version while allowing mutations to the StatefulSet's .spec.template. Patch the web StatefulSet to add a partition to the updateStrategy field. kubectl patch statefulset web -p '{"spec":{"updateStrategy":{"type":"RollingUpdate","rollingUpdate":{"partition":3}}}}' statefulset.apps/web patched  Patch the StatefulSet again to change the container's image. kubectl patch statefulset web --type='json' -p='[{"op": "replace", "path": "/spec/template/spec/containers/0/image", "value":"k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.7"}]' statefulset.apps/web patched  Delete a Pod in the StatefulSet. kubectl delete po web-2 pod "web-2" deleted  Wait for the Pod to be Running and Ready. kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 4m web-1 1/1 Running 0 4m web-2 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 11s web-2 1/1 Running 0 18s  Get the Pod's container. kubectl get po web-2 --template '{{range$i, $c := .spec.containers}}{{$c.image}}{{end}}'
k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8


Notice that, even though the update strategy is RollingUpdate the StatefulSet controller restored the Pod with its original container. This is because the ordinal of the Pod is less than the partition specified by the updateStrategy.

#### Rolling Out a Canary

You can roll out a canary to test a modification by decrementing the partition you specified above.

Patch the StatefulSet to decrement the partition.

kubectl patch statefulset web -p '{"spec":{"updateStrategy":{"type":"RollingUpdate","rollingUpdate":{"partition":2}}}}'
statefulset.apps/web patched


Wait for web-2 to be Running and Ready.

kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w
web-0     1/1       Running             0          4m
web-1     1/1       Running             0          4m
web-2     0/1       ContainerCreating   0          11s
web-2     1/1       Running   0         18s


Get the Pod's container.

kubectl get po web-2 --template '{{range $i,$c := .spec.containers}}{{$c.image}}{{end}}' k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.7  When you changed the partition, the StatefulSet controller automatically updated the web-2 Pod because the Pod's ordinal was greater than or equal to the partition. Delete the web-1 Pod. kubectl delete po web-1 pod "web-1" deleted  Wait for the web-1 Pod to be Running and Ready. kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 6m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 6m web-2 1/1 Running 0 2m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 6m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 6m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 6m web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 Pending 0 0s web-1 0/1 ContainerCreating 0 0s web-1 1/1 Running 0 18s  Get the web-1 Pods container. kubectl get po web-1 --template '{{range$i, $c := .spec.containers}}{{$c.image}}{{end}}'
k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8


web-1 was restored to its original configuration because the Pod's ordinal was less than the partition. When a partition is specified, all Pods with an ordinal that is greater than or equal to the partition will be updated when the StatefulSet's .spec.template is updated. If a Pod that has an ordinal less than the partition is deleted or otherwise terminated, it will be restored to its original configuration.

#### Phased Roll Outs

You can perform a phased roll out (e.g. a linear, geometric, or exponential roll out) using a partitioned rolling update in a similar manner to how you rolled out a canary. To perform a phased roll out, set the partition to the ordinal at which you want the controller to pause the update.

The partition is currently set to 2. Set the partition to 0.

kubectl patch statefulset web -p '{"spec":{"updateStrategy":{"type":"RollingUpdate","rollingUpdate":{"partition":0}}}}'
statefulset.apps/web patched


Wait for all of the Pods in the StatefulSet to become Running and Ready.

kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w
web-0     1/1       Running             0          3m
web-1     0/1       ContainerCreating   0          11s
web-2     1/1       Running             0          2m
web-1     1/1       Running   0         18s
web-0     1/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     1/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-0     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-0     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-0     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-0     1/1       Running   0         3s


Get the Pod's containers.

for p in 0 1 2; do kubectl get po web-$p --template '{{range$i, $c := .spec.containers}}{{$c.image}}{{end}}'; echo; done
k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.7
k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.7
k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.7


By moving the partition to 0, you allowed the StatefulSet controller to continue the update process.

### On Delete

The OnDelete update strategy implements the legacy (1.6 and prior) behavior, When you select this update strategy, the StatefulSet controller will not automatically update Pods when a modification is made to the StatefulSet's .spec.template field. This strategy can be selected by setting the .spec.template.updateStrategy.type to OnDelete.

## Deleting StatefulSets

StatefulSet supports both Non-Cascading and Cascading deletion. In a Non-Cascading Delete, the StatefulSet's Pods are not deleted when the StatefulSet is deleted. In a Cascading Delete, both the StatefulSet and its Pods are deleted.

In one terminal window, watch the Pods in the StatefulSet.

kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx


Use kubectl delete to delete the StatefulSet. Make sure to supply the --cascade=false parameter to the command. This parameter tells Kubernetes to only delete the StatefulSet, and to not delete any of its Pods.

kubectl delete statefulset web --cascade=false
statefulset.apps "web" deleted


Get the Pods to examine their status.

kubectl get pods -l app=nginx
web-0     1/1       Running   0          6m
web-1     1/1       Running   0          7m
web-2     1/1       Running   0          5m


Even though web has been deleted, all of the Pods are still Running and Ready. Delete web-0.

kubectl delete pod web-0
pod "web-0" deleted


Get the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl get pods -l app=nginx
web-1     1/1       Running   0          10m
web-2     1/1       Running   0          7m


As the web StatefulSet has been deleted, web-0 has not been relaunched.

In one terminal, watch the StatefulSet's Pods.

kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx


In a second terminal, recreate the StatefulSet. Note that, unless you deleted the nginx Service ( which you should not have ), you will see an error indicating that the Service already exists.

kubectl apply -f web.yaml
statefulset.apps/web created
service/nginx unchanged


Ignore the error. It only indicates that an attempt was made to create the nginx Headless Service even though that Service already exists.

Examine the output of the kubectl get command running in the first terminal.

kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx
web-1     1/1       Running   0          16m
web-2     1/1       Running   0          2m
web-0     0/1       Pending   0          0s
web-0     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-0     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-0     1/1       Running   0         18s
web-2     1/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         3m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         3m


When the web StatefulSet was recreated, it first relaunched web-0. Since web-1 was already Running and Ready, when web-0 transitioned to Running and Ready, it simply adopted this Pod. Since you recreated the StatefulSet with replicas equal to 2, once web-0 had been recreated, and once web-1 had been determined to already be Running and Ready, web-2 was terminated.

Let's take another look at the contents of the index.html file served by the Pods' webservers.

for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec -it web-$i -- curl localhost; done web-0 web-1  Even though you deleted both the StatefulSet and the web-0 Pod, it still serves the hostname originally entered into its index.html file. This is because the StatefulSet never deletes the PersistentVolumes associated with a Pod. When you recreated the StatefulSet and it relaunched web-0, its original PersistentVolume was remounted. ### Cascading Delete In one terminal window, watch the Pods in the StatefulSet. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx  In another terminal, delete the StatefulSet again. This time, omit the --cascade=false parameter. kubectl delete statefulset web statefulset.apps "web" deleted  Examine the output of the kubectl get command running in the first terminal, and wait for all of the Pods to transition to Terminating. kubectl get pods -w -l app=nginx NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Running 0 11m web-1 1/1 Running 0 27m NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE web-0 1/1 Terminating 0 12m web-1 1/1 Terminating 0 29m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 12m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 12m web-0 0/1 Terminating 0 12m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 29m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 29m web-1 0/1 Terminating 0 29m  As you saw in the Scaling Down section, the Pods are terminated one at a time, with respect to the reverse order of their ordinal indices. Before terminating a Pod, the StatefulSet controller waits for the Pod's successor to be completely terminated. Note that, while a cascading delete will delete the StatefulSet and its Pods, it will not delete the Headless Service associated with the StatefulSet. You must delete the nginx Service manually. kubectl delete service nginx service "nginx" deleted  Recreate the StatefulSet and Headless Service one more time. kubectl apply -f web.yaml service/nginx created statefulset.apps/web created  When all of the StatefulSet's Pods transition to Running and Ready, retrieve the contents of their index.html files. for i in 0 1; do kubectl exec -it web-$i -- curl localhost; done
web-0
web-1


Even though you completely deleted the StatefulSet, and all of its Pods, the Pods are recreated with their PersistentVolumes mounted, and web-0 and web-1 will still serve their hostnames.

Finally delete the web StatefulSet and the nginx service.

kubectl delete service nginx
service "nginx" deleted

kubectl delete statefulset web
statefulset "web" deleted


## Pod Management Policy

For some distributed systems, the StatefulSet ordering guarantees are unnecessary and/or undesirable. These systems require only uniqueness and identity. To address this, in Kubernetes 1.7, we introduced .spec.podManagementPolicy to the StatefulSet API Object.

OrderedReady pod management is the default for StatefulSets. It tells the StatefulSet controller to respect the ordering guarantees demonstrated above.

### Parallel Pod Management

Parallel pod management tells the StatefulSet controller to launch or terminate all Pods in parallel, and not to wait for Pods to become Running and Ready or completely terminated prior to launching or terminating another Pod.

application/web/web-parallel.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
ports:
- port: 80
name: web
clusterIP: None
selector:
app: nginx
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
name: web
spec:
serviceName: "nginx"
podManagementPolicy: "Parallel"
replicas: 2
selector:
matchLabels:
app: nginx
template:
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- name: nginx
image: k8s.gcr.io/nginx-slim:0.8
ports:
- containerPort: 80
name: web
volumeMounts:
- name: www
mountPath: /usr/share/nginx/html
volumeClaimTemplates:
name: www
spec:
resources:
requests:
storage: 1Gi


Download the example above, and save it to a file named web-parallel.yaml

This manifest is identical to the one you downloaded above except that the .spec.podManagementPolicy of the web StatefulSet is set to Parallel.

In one terminal, watch the Pods in the StatefulSet.

kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w


In another terminal, create the StatefulSet and Service in the manifest.

kubectl apply -f web-parallel.yaml
service/nginx created
statefulset.apps/web created


Examine the output of the kubectl get command that you executed in the first terminal.

kubectl get po -l app=nginx -w
web-0     0/1       Pending   0          0s
web-0     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-1     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-0     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-1     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         0s
web-0     1/1       Running   0         10s
web-1     1/1       Running   0         10s


The StatefulSet controller launched both web-0 and web-1 at the same time.

Keep the second terminal open, and, in another terminal window scale the StatefulSet.

kubectl scale statefulset/web --replicas=4
statefulset.apps/web scaled


Examine the output of the terminal where the kubectl get command is running.

web-3     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-3     0/1       Pending   0         0s
web-3     0/1       Pending   0         7s
web-3     0/1       ContainerCreating   0         7s
web-2     1/1       Running   0         10s
web-3     1/1       Running   0         26s


The StatefulSet controller launched two new Pods, and it did not wait for the first to become Running and Ready prior to launching the second.

Keep this terminal open, and in another terminal delete the web StatefulSet.

kubectl delete sts web


Again, examine the output of the kubectl get command running in the other terminal.

web-3     1/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-2     1/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-3     1/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-2     1/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-1     1/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     1/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-3     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-1     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-2     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-1     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-1     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-1     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-0     0/1       Terminating   0         44m
web-3     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-3     0/1       Terminating   0         9m
web-3     0/1       Terminating   0         9m


The StatefulSet controller deletes all Pods concurrently, it does not wait for a Pod's ordinal successor to terminate prior to deleting that Pod.

Close the terminal where the kubectl get command is running and delete the nginx Service.

kubectl delete svc nginx


You will need to delete the persistent storage media for the PersistentVolumes used in this tutorial. Follow the necessary steps, based on your environment, storage configuration, and provisioning method, to ensure that all storage is reclaimed.